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What applies to "God alone" encompasses the Lord Jesus

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 We see several examples from Scripture where what is specifically said applies to God alone[*1] is elsewhere used in reference to the Lord Jesus. This validates the Trinitarian claim that the Lord Jesus is God. 


  The underlined is all mine.


[*1] Concerning the use of "only" in reference to the Father in John 17:3 see here:




A. 1 Samuel 7:3

Then Samuel spoke to all the house of Israel, saying, “If you return to the LORD with all your heart, remove the foreign gods and the Ashtaroth from among you and direct your hearts to the LORD and serve Him alone; and He will deliver you from the hand of the Philistines.” (NASB)

     1. Bridgeway Bible Dictionary: God alone is to be worshipped (Acts 10:25-26;Acts 14:11-15;Revelation 22:8-9). Those who worship any other god, person or thing are guilty of idolatry (Exodus 20:4-5; Exodus 32:8;Deuteronomy 4:19;Deuteronomy 8:19;Romans 1:25; see IDOLATRY).


     2. In defining "Monotheism" the Jewish Encyclopedia (1901) affirms that it entails the "worshipers of the one God and of Him alone." (See the first paragraph)


The fact that the Lord Jesus is the proper recipient of worship demonstrates that He is God.

     1. NIDNTT: It is therefore a necessary consequence of the self-revelation of God which has taken place in Jesus of Nazareth, that the post-resurrection confession of faith should include worship of the ascended One, who now sits at God's right hand, as the original mediator of creation (1 Cor. 8:6; Col. 1:16; Heb. 1:2, 10; Jn. 1:1 ff.). The whole creation was made through him and with him in view (Jn. 1:3; 9-12). It has its basis (Rev. 3:14) and its goal in him (Heb. 1:11 f.) (1:384, Creation, H. H. Esser).


B. 1 Kings 8:39 (cf. 2 Chronicles 6:46)

hear in heaven Your dwelling place, and forgive and act and render to each according to all his ways, whose heart You know, for You alone know the hearts of all the sons of men. (NASB)

 That the Lord Jesus shares omniscience with the Father demonstrates that He is God.



C. Psalm 51:4

Against You, You only, I have sinned

And done what is evil in Your sight,

So that You are justified when You speak

And blameless when You judge. (NASB)

 Although we can sin against others all sins are ultimately directed against God alone. We can forgive those who sin against us, but we cannot forgive those who sin against others. Since all sins are also committed against the Lord Jesus this demonstrates that both He and the Father are equally God (1 Corinthians 8:12).


D. Psalm 83:18

That men may know that thou, whose name alone is JEHOVAH, art the most high over all the earth. (KJV)

  Notice that Jehovah is also described as "my God" in Psalm 83:13. The fact that Thomas properly refers to the Lord Jesus as "my God" in John 20:28 demonstrates that the Lord Jesus is Jehovah.



 In Psalm 83:16 mention is made about seeking the name of the Lord. To seek the Lord means to worship the Lord.

Daniel 9:3

So I gave my attention to the Lord God to seek Him by prayer and supplications, with fasting, sackcloth and ashes (NASB; cf. Zechariah 8:21-22).

 Thus when people pray to the Lord Jesus they are seeking Him (cf. Hosea 3:5; Malachi 3:1). Indeed, to seek God (Psalm 14:2; Jeremiah 29:13) entails calling upon God (Psalm 14:4; Jeremiah 29:12; cf. Isaiah 55:6). That Christians call upon the name of the Lord in reference to the Lord Jesus means that they are seeking the Lord Jesus (Romans 10:12-14; 1 Corinthians 1:2; 2 Timothy 2:22). Furthermore, the Bible also teaches that when one seeks the Lord (Jeremiah 50:4) he/she is joined to the Lord which entails worshiping Him (Jeremiah 50:5). That Christians are joined to the Lord Jesus means they seek/worship Him (1 Corinthians 6:17).


 Finally, Psalm 83:18 refers to Jehovah as "the most high." When hypsistos (the Greek word for "the most high")[*1] is used in the New Testament it means "pertaining to being the highest in status, ὁ ὕψιστος, the Most High of God, distinguished from lesser deities and other objects of cultic devotion" (BDAG, 3rd Edition, page 1045). 
 The fact that the Lord Jesus is the proper recipient of cultic devotion (religious worship) in equality with the Father demonstrates that He is not at all distinguished from the Father as a lesser object of cultic devotion. This proves the Lord Jesus is "the Most High God."


[*1] This is the same Greek word employed in the LXX.


E. Psalm 148:13

Let them praise the name of the LORD,

For His name alone is exalted;

His glory is above earth and heaven. (NASB)

 The name of Jesus is exalted (Philippians 2:10; cf. Hebrews 7:26) and He is to be praised in worship (2 Peter 3:18; Revelation 5:13).  And worship is due only unto God.


F. Isaiah 44:24 (cf. Job 9:8)

Thus says the LORD, your Redeemer, and the one who formed you from the womb,

I, the LORD, am the maker of all things,

Stretching out the heavens by Myself

And spreading out the earth all alone. (NASB)

 The Father and the Lord Jesus created everything and yet God did so all alone.

     1. Karl Keil and Franz Delitzsch: It was He who alone, without the co-operation of any other being, stretched out the heavens, who made the earth into a wide plain

by Himself, i.e., so that it proceeded from Himself alone.


     2. NIDNTT: Isa. 44:24: "I am the Lord, who made all things." This witness to the uniqueness and universality of God is fully aware of the first commandment and rejects every power that claims to have shared in God's work creation. This is not contradicted by the claim that through Jesus Christ all things were made (1 Cor. 8:6), in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible (Col. 1:15f.) (1:95, All, F. Graber).

     3. William Mounce: But to Paul Jesus is the exalted Lord, Creator, sustainer, and goal of the universe; preeminent in everything, and infinitely superior to all earthly authorities and heavenly angelic powers (Mounce's Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words, All, page 14).


G. Matthew 4:10 (cf. Luke 4:8)

Then Jesus said to him, “Go, Satan! For it is written, ‘YOU SHALL WORSHIP THE LORD YOUR GOD, AND SERVE HIM ONLY.’” (NASB)

 The Greek word for "serve" is latreuō and it is properly rendered unto the Lord Jesus.



H. Mark 10:18

And Jesus said to him, Why do you call Me good? No one is Good except God alone. (NASB)

 That the Lord Jesus asked why He was being called "good" does not necessitate a denial. If I am overseas and someone I never met refers to me as an American and I respond by asking why he/she is addressing me as such this doesn't mean I am denying it. I am simply asking why.

 That the Lord Jesus is absolutely good in equality with the Father see here:



 Furthermore, this goodness entails holiness and since the Lord Jesus is the proper recipient of worship demonstrates that He is equally holy ("good") with the Father (see Revelation 15:4 below).


I. Romans 16:27

to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ, be the glory forever. Amen. (NASB)

 The Lord Jesus is praised for His wisdom in which He equally shares with the Father (Revelation 5:12).

     1. NIDNTT: In Revelation sophia is praised in two hymnic texts as an attribute of God (Rev. 7:12; cf. also Rom. 16:27); it is also to be attributed to the slain Lamb at his exaltation (Rev. 5:12). The exalted Christ has the same power and wisdom as God (3:1032, Wisdom, J. Goetzmann).

     2. Thayer's Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: supreme intelligence, such as belongs to God: Rev. 7:12, also to Christ, exalted to God's right hand, Rev. 5:12 (sophia, page 582).

     3. The BDAG (3rd Edition): Concerning Revelation 5:12 the Greek word for "wisdom" is sophia and it is used "of the exalted Christ" (page 935), but when defining "might" (ischys) which appears in the very same passage it is "used with dynamis and similar words as attributes of God" (page 484).  


J. 1 Timothy 1:17

Now to the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honor and glory forever and ever. Amen. (NASB)

 The context points to the Lord Jesus being referred to as the "only God" in this doxology in that He is the focus of 1 Timothy 1:12-16.  

(12) I thank Christ Jesus our Lord, who has strengthened me, because He considered me faithful, putting me into service,

(13) even though I was formerly a blasphemer and a persecutor and a violent aggressor. Yet I was shown mercy because I acted ignorantly in unbelief;

(14) and the grace of our Lord[*1] was more than abundant, with the faith and love which are found in Christ Jesus.

(15) It is a trustworthy statement, deserving full acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners, among whom I am foremost of all.

(16) Yet for this reason I found mercy, so that in me as the foremost, Jesus Christ might demonstrate His perfect patience as an example for those who would believe in Him for eternal life.

(17) Now to the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honor and glory forever and ever. Amen. (NASB)

 In 1 Timothy 1:12 the thankfulness offered to the Lord Jesus "refers to appropriate response to the Deity for benefits conferred" (BDAG 3rd Edition, charis, page 1080). Since this thankfulness is expressed in worship to the Deity (the Lord Jesus) Paul simply continued in his thankful worship of Him in 1:17. John Bengel writes, "Christ entrusted Paul with the Gospel: Paul, being “accounted faithful,” ‘thanks’ Christ. He thanks Him at 1 Timothy 1:17."


Note also the following:

     1. William Mounce: Is the βασιλεύς, "king," God the Father or Christ? βασιλεύς occurs in the PE elsewhere in 1 Tim 2:2, describing earthly kings, and in the doxology in 1 Tim 6:15, where it is addressed to God the Father. The only other doxology in the PE is in 2 Tim 4:18, where the subject, ὁ κύριος, "the Lord," is Jesus. βασιλεία, "kingdom," is used twice, both times referring to Christ (2 Tim 4:1, 18), the latter occurring immediately before a doxology. The only divine actor in 1:12-17 seems to be Christ (unless, τοῦ κυρίου, "Lord," in v 14 is God the Father), who is specifically addressed in vv 12, 14, 16. However, doxologies tend to be addressed to God and not to Christ, as in 1 Tim 6:15. The theological question is whether Paul can describe Christ as "incorruptible, invisible, the only God." Perhaps this is another indication of the Christology of the PE, which joins God and Christ in such close union that at times it is difficult to distinguish them. If the doxology is addressed to Christ, declaring him to be the "only God," it is theologically significant (Pastoral Epistles, Word Biblical Commentary, page 60).

    2. Peter Pett: This reads more like a prayer from a worshipful heart, as he contemplates what the King has done, rather than a creed (compare Romans 16:25-27 which contains the same sense of timelessness). It may have had a basis in a Jewish prayer, but Paul was surely quite capable of such a flow of thought himself. And it is a description wrung from the heart of someone who has recognised and absorbed the glory of the King. And in the context the idea of the King must surely include Jesus. In the preceding narrative it is He who came into the world for the salvation of sinners (1 Timothy 1:15; compare Zechariah 9:9). It is He Who has shown His longsuffering to Paul (1 Timothy 1:16). It is He Who is ‘Christ Jesus our Lord’ Who has made His appointments to His service (1 Timothy 1:12). It is He Whose grace has abounded exceedingly to Paul as from ‘the Lord’ (1 Timothy 1:14, compare 1 Timothy 1:12). And all Paul’s concentration has been on Him. We would thus surely expect Him to be the recipient of Paul’s praise at this point.



[*1] It is interesting to note that the BDAG (3rd Edition) affirms 1 Timothy 1:14 is in reference to both the Lord Jesus and God.

 Concerning "grace" (charis): The beneficence or favor of Christ (page 1079).

 Concerning "Lord" (kyrios): of God (page 577).

 Likewise, Paul did not go out of his way to clearly delineate between the Father and the Lord Jesus when it comes to identifying to whom the "only God" refers to in 1 Timothy 1:17. In fact, his ambiguity is to such an extent that his use of the "only God" purposefully encompasses the Lord Jesus. Thus "the doxology of praise comes as the climax and the welling-up of Paul's deep adoration and thankfulness. God the Father has not been mentioned in the context, so this doxology to God may be taken as directed to Christ or to the Triune God" (Wycliffe Bible Commentary, Wilbur Wallis, page 1371).


K. Revelation 15:4

Who will not fear, O Lord,

and glorify your name?

For You alone are holy;

All nations will come

and worship you,

for your righteous acts have been revealed. (ESV)

 The same Greek word for “holy” (ὅσιος) is also used in Titus 1:8 as a noble quality of what people (overseers) are to aspire to. Therefore, what Revelation 15:4 is teaching (based on the very next clause) is that because God alone is absolutely holy He alone is to be worshiped. His absolute holiness forms the basis for this worship that is to be ascribed unto Him. Rendering worship to anyone/anything other than God is to ascribe the holiness that He “alone” possesses to a creature.
 The fact that the Lord Jesus is the proper recipient of worship demonstrates that He is absolutely holy (God).

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